g.Yung-ston speaks of four kinds of gnyer, namely, (1) bka’ stsal ston pa’i gnyer, (2) zhu ba po ’khor gyi gnyer, (3) sdud pa po tshig gi gnyer, and (4) sgra sgyur lo tsā ba’i gnyer (p. 36). My problem is I don’t understand the precise meaning of gnyer, which is obviously used as a noun/substantive. Although he does not use gnyer ba, perhaps we should understand gnyer (= gnyer ba) in the sense of “exertion” (Jäschke, s.v.)? Or perhaps “aspiration”? Cf. the line cited (p. 36) from the sPar khab: sdud pa pos tshig gnyer ba de’i tshe.