February 03, 2013


A note on the use of ’os: (a) No doubt that the verb ’os pa “to be (ethically/morally/logically) appropriate” can be used a kind of modal verb (q.v.) = verb (full form) + r (la don) + ’os.  Example: ’di la stong pa nyid bstan par ’os so || “It is appropriate to teach him [the doctrine of] emptiness.” (b) There is yet another interesting usage of ’os (as in ’os med pa and ’os ma mchis pa): verb (full form) + las (ablative particle) + ’os + verb (in the negative form). Examples: (1) lan de ’dra zhig ’debs pa las ’os ma byung ba yin | “There happened to be no choice but to give such an answer.” (2) rang blo rang la lkog gyur du khas len pa las ’os med do || “There is no choice but to posit that one’s cognition is [cognitively] remote to oneself.” (3) khyab med kyi lan ’deb pa las ’os med [do] || “There is no alternative to responding with a ‘no (logical) pervasion/conclusiveness’.” (4) x zhes zhu la las ’os ci (elliptical) (= something like: x zhes zhu ba las ’os ci zhig yod de med do ||) “What choice is there apart from telling….”

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