January 07, 2012



The Tibetan practice of putting together three closely related items (i.e. substantives) by following the four-syllabic structure “xyz-gsum” seems quite unique. It may be preceded by a mono/disyllabic generic word. Although some of these expressions may sound elliptical (particularly to those not accustomed to the jargon or clichés) and thus would require explanation, these expressions are in general to the point, convenient, and expressive. I, personally, am a fan of these and thus have made an attempt to gather them.

1. ’chad rtsod rtsom gsum (sLob deb, p. 213)
2. ’chang ’bral ’jog gsum (Bod rgya, s.v. ltung ba bcu)
3. ’dzin skyong spel gsum (Bod rgya)
4. ’jug gnas ldang gsum (Bod rgya, s.v.)
5. (bshad pa) dbu phar ’dul gsum (rDzogs chen chos ’byung, p. 159)
6. (chos rgyal) mos dbon rnam gsum
7. (lta ba) mdo sgyu sems gsum (rDzogs chen chos ’byung, p. 159)
8. (thugs sras) rje ’bangs grogs gsum (rDzogs chen chos ’byung, p. 169)
9. (zur pa) mos dbon rnam gsum (sLob deb, p. 185.
10. bde dgyes gsang gsum (bDud joms chos ’byung, p. 526
11. bka’ dgongs phur gsum (sLob deb, p. 199)
12. bla rdzogs thugs gsum
13. blo snying brang gsum (Bod rgya, s.v. gtod pa; Pad ma bka’ thang, p. 662)
14. bshad sgrub las gsum (sLob deb, p. 208, 212
15. bu dol sher gsum (Gur bkra chos ’byung, p. 223
16. bum rong bzhag gsum? (bDud joms chos ’byung, pp. 361)
17. che ’bring chung gsum 
18. chos longs sprul gsum
19. dam gtsang byams gsum (bDud joms chos ’byung, p. 363)
20. dbang lung khrid gsum (Bod rgya, s.v. chos brgyud)
21. dbus gtsang mdo gsum (Bod rgya, s.v.)
22. dbyar dgag gso gsum (Bod rgya, s.v. bcas pa’i bslab gzhi)
23. dgag gzhag spong gsum
24. dkar nag khra gsum (Bod rgya)
25. dmar g.yo gtsang gsum
26. dngul zangs lcags gsum (Bod rgya, s.v. pu de gung rgyal)
27. dpa’ mdzangs des gsum (Bod rgya, s.v.)
28.  drag zhan bar gsum
29. gangs g.ya’ mtsho gsum (Bod rgya, s.v. mnga' ris skor gsum)
30. ja mar tsha gsum (Bod rgya, s.v. ja dkrug)
31. kho king ’char gsum (dPal gdan, p. 15)
32. khu rdul rlung gsum
33. lto gos gtam gsum (Bod rgya, s.v.)
34. lus ngag yid gsum (Bod rgya)
35. ma gshin phur gsum (Gur bkra chos ’byung, p. 173)
36. ma gza’ dam gsum (sLob deb, p. 201)
37. mar mi dwags gsum (bDud joms chos ’byung, p. 529)
38. mchog dman bar gsum (Bod rgya, s.v. gtam tshogs)
39. mdo sgyu sems gsum (sLob deb, pp. 192, 200)
40. mkhan slob chos gsum (bDud joms chos ’byung, p. 5299
41. mkhas btsun bzang gsum (sLob deb, p. 209)
42. mthong thos dogs gsum
43.  mthong thos myong gsum (Bod rgya, s.v. ’jig rten gyi mngon sum tshad ma)
44. nyang sbas gnon gsum (Bod rgya, s.v.)
45. phu mda’ bar gsum (Bod rgya, s.v.)
46. phu mdo bar gsum (Bod rgya, s.v.)
47. phya gtsang ngan? gsum (Gur bkra chos ’byung, p. 223)
48. phyi nang bar gsum (Bod rgya, s.v.)
49. phyi nang gsang gsum (Bod rgya, s.v. gsang ba)
50. rab ’bring tha gsum (rDa dag, s.v. zhan)
51. rgya bod hor gsum (Bod rgya)
52. rgyas ’bring bsdus gsum (Bod rgya, s.v.)
53. rma gnyags gnubs gsum (’Jigs gling gsung ’bum, vol. 7, p. 463)
54. rta phyag khyung gsum (Mus-po, p. 46)
55. rta sha btsan gsum (dPal gdan, p. 13)
56. rtags chos don gsum (Bod rgya, s.v.)
57. rtags dpe phyogs gsum (Bod rgya, s.v.)
58. rtsa thig rlung gsum (Bod rgya, s.v.)
59. sa ngor tshar gsum (bDud joms chos ’byung, p. 526)
60. sbyor dngos mjug gsum (Bod rgya, s.v.)
61. sbyor dngos rjes gsum (Bod rgya, s.v. bsags pa’i las)
62. se ’bras dga’ gsum (Bod rgya)
63. ska cog zhang gsum (Bod rgya, s.v.)
64. skye ’gag gnas gsum (Bod rgya, s.v.)
65.  skye gnas ’gag gsum (Bod rgya, s.v.)
66. snang mched thob gsum (Bod rgya, s.v.)
67. snga bar phyi gsum (Bod rgya, s.v. chos ’khor rim pa gsum)
68. snga phyi bar gsum (Bod rgya, s.v.)
69. sngon rjes bar gsum (Bod rgya, s.v.)
70. sngon rjes ming gsum (Bod rgya)
71. so byang sngags gsum (Bod rgya, s.v. chos khrims)
72. so zur gnubs gsum (Bod rgya, s.v. gnubs sangs rgyas ye shes)
73. stod smad bar gsum (Bod rgya, s.v. mnga' ris skor gsum)
74. thog mtha’/tha bar gsum (Bod rgya, s.v. ka rtsom)
75. tshe srog bla gsum (Bod rgya)
76. yul dbang shes gsum (Bod rgya, s.v.)

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